References for: The Arabic numeral system

  1. G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
  2. G G Joseph, The crest of the peacock (London, 1991).
  3. R Kaplan, The nothing that is : a natural history of zero (London, 1999).
  4. L C Karpinski, The history of arithmetic (New York, 1965).
  5. K W Menninger, Number words and number symbols : A cultural history of numbers (Boston, 1969).
  6. D E Smith and L C Karpinski, The Hindu-Arabic numerals (Boston, 1911).

JOC/EFR January 2001

MacTutor History of Mathematics