References for: Babylonian numerals


  1. A Aaboe, Episodes from the Early History of Mathematics (1964).
  2. R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N. J., 1999).
  3. G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
  4. G G Joseph, The crest of the peacock (London, 1991).
  5. O Neugebauer and A Sachs, Mathematical Cuneiform Texts (New Haven, CT., 1945).
  6. B L van der Waerden, Science Awakening (Groningen, 1954).
  7. B L van der Waerden, Geometry and Algebra in Ancient Civilizations (New York, 1983).


  1. J Hoyrup, Babylonian mathematics, in I Grattan-Guinness (ed.), Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences (London, 1994), 21-29.
  2. J Friberg, Methods and traditions of Babylonian mathematics. Plimpton 322, Pythagorean triples, and the Babylonian triangle parameter equations, Historia Mathematica 8 (1981), 277-318.

JOC/EFR December 2000

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