References for: A history of Zero


  1. R Calinger, A conceptual history of mathematics (Upper Straddle River, N. J., 1999).
  2. G Ifrah, From one to zero : A universal history of numbers (New York, 1987).
  3. G Ifrah, A universal history of numbers : From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998).
  4. G G Joseph, The crest of the peacock (London, 1991).
  5. R Kaplan, The nothing that is : a natural history of zero (London, 1999).
  6. R Mukherjee, Discovery of zero and its impact on Indian mathematics (Calcutta, 1991).


  1. S Giuntini, A discussion concerning the nature of zero and the relation between imaginary and real numbers (Italian), Boll. Storia Sci. Mat. 4 (1) (1984), 25-63.
  2. R C Gupta, Who invented the zero?, Ganita-Bharati 17 (1-4) (1995), 45-61.
  3. P Mäder, "Wie die Puppe ein Adler sein wollte, der Esel ein Löwe, die Äffin eine Königin - so wollte die Null eine Ziffer sein!" Ein Überblick zur Geschichte der Zahl Null, in Jahrbuch Überblicke Mathematik, 1995 (Braunschweig, 1995), 39-64.
  4. R N Mukherjee, Background to the discovery of the symbol for zero, in Proceedings of the Symposium on the 1500th Birth Anniversary of Aryabhata I, New Delhi, 1976, Indian J. Hist. Sci. 12 (2) (1977), 225-231.
  5. K Muroi, The expressions of zero and of squaring in the Babylonian mathematical text VAT 7537, Historia Sci. (2) 1 (1) (1991), 59-62.
  6. L Pogliani, M Randic and N Trinajstic, Much ado about nothing - an introductive inquiry about zero, Internat. J. Math. Ed. Sci. Tech. 29 (5) (1998),729--744.
  7. S Ursini Legovich, The origin of the zero in Central American civilization. Comparative analysis with the Hindu case (Spanish), Mat. Enseñanza No. 13 (1980), 7-20.
  8. M Ja Vygodskii, L'origine du signe de zéro dans la numération babylonienne (Russian), Istor.-Mat. Issled. 12 (1959), 393-420.

JOC/EFR November 2000

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